Apr 202022
 


One of the areas addressed by the Cardio-Oncology Research Group of the Centre for Personalized Oncology of the WCRC for Personalized Medicine is to identify a risk group for cardiotoxic effects of antitumor therapy in cancer patients.

To date, the mechanisms of cardiovascular complications have been well studied for anthracyclines. The spectrum of complications induced by these anticancer drugs includes progressive heart failure and rhythm and conduction disturbances in the so-called anthracycline cardiomyopathy, which requires the use of developed early detection algorithms and in some cases even the withdrawal of chemotherapy drugs.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICTs) are relatively new anticancer drugs. They can restart the antitumor immune response and induce tumor cell death by various signaling molecules (Fig. A).

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Fig. 1. А — mechanism of action of immune checkpoint inhibitors: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4); programmed cell death protein (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1); Б, В, Г — expression of PD-L1 in the myocardium of various patients: Б — patients with coronary artery disease (blue arrow – PD-L1 expression in endothelial cells and cardiomyocyte membrane; black arrow — PD-L1 expression on intercalated discs), В — patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, Г — control group: cancer patients without cardiac complications during therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

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