Production of pluripotent mammal (mouse) stem cells from an adult animal fibroblasts by injection of 4 reprogramming transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) was a real revolution in cell biology and regenerative medicine. Thus, differentiation signals received in the course of development in the cells of an adult animal are «erased» and the cells return the opportunity to differentiate into different directions. These cells were named iPS — induced pluripotent cells or iPS cells — induced pluripotent stem cells. Now it is widely accepted that human iPSCs are highly informative model that can show various hereditary and congenital human diseases. By collaborative work with Medical University of Göttingen our Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology has successfully implemented a technique of production iPSCs and their differentiation into functional cardiomyocytes. Now it is planned to study directed differentiation of iPS cells in congenital abnormalities in the myocardium (cardiomyopathies) by using iPS technology. In addition, it is planned to develop the differentiation of iPs in the direction of endothelial and smooth muscle cells with the further study of cellular mechanisms of the aorta and aortic valve diseases.