Calcified aortic valve stenosis is the third leading cause of cardiovascular disease. The main feature of the disease is the progressive mineralization of valve tissue. The mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear, but in recent years it has become known that the pathological mineralization of the heart and blood vessels has some similarities with the physiological process of bone formation. However, the early initiating mechanisms that trigger osteogenic transformation of cells remain unclear. The only treatment currently available is heart surgery with valve prosthesis implantation. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying the ectopic mineralization of valve tissues may in future become the basis for preclinical studies in this area and a step to the possibility of controlling osteogenesis, to prevent the development of pathological calcification of tissues, or, conversely, to induce regenerative processes in bone tissue. In addition, finding potential therapeutic targets will become the basis for the development of conservative methods of treatment of aortic valve calcification, which will help maintain and improve the quality of life of many people around the world.