Almazov Centre participates in 14 scientific platforms of the Russian Ministry of Health and its specialists are included in the expert groups in six of these platforms. The research teams of the Centre were actively involved in shaping the research topics for these platforms. In 2018, the Centre carried out research work on 47 scientific topics selected by the experts as part of the state assignment on science. The Centre has 836 scientific staff members, 107 research departments and laboratories. The total Hirsch index of the research staff is 1,498.

The Centre holds 20 critical scientific technologies and has mastered new technologies, including intraoperative monitoring of myocardial ischemia/ischemia-reperfusion injury by fluorescence imaging, near-infrared fluorescence organoscopy, patch clamping of cardiomyocytes and fat cells. Innovative technologies were introduced into practice, including vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of heart failure, spinal cord stimulation in patients with refractory heart failure, lingual stimulation in vegetative states, electroconvulsive therapy in patients with akinetic mutism, staged surgical treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy using the technique of extraoperative mapping of the epileptogenic zone, selective endovascular embolization of extra/intracranial malignant tumors, two-level cerebral protection in patients with severe brain injury using physical and pharmacological methods, etc.

Almazov Centre has founded three scientific journals included in the Russian Science Citation Index, and one of these journals won the Russian scientific journals contest held by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science. In 2018, 14 monographs, textbooks and guides were published. The specialists of the Centre won numerous competitions, grants for young scientists from various societies and conferences and became honorary members of scientific societies.

The Centre has agreements on scientific cooperation in various fields with 22 universities and research institutions from around the world. In 2017–2018, new memoranda on cooperation were signed between the Centre and foreign scientific and educational organizations, including the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Nicolae Testemițanu State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Moldova), International Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Foundation (Great Britain), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (Great Britain). Under the agreement with the National Research University Higher School of Economics, joint activities are carried out with the International Centre for Health Economics, Management, and Policy. The training under the Computational Biomedicine master's program is delivered jointly with the University of Amsterdam under the agreement with the University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics.

Almazov Centre plans to file an application for the creation of a research and education centre (REC) for biomedicine as part of the Science national project.

Almazov Centre has the following research institutes:

and 6 independent divisions: