Almazov Centre is a leading medical research and teaching centre, recognized for high quality care, leadership in innovation and high publication performance.
In 2020, as part of a grant from the Russian Ministry of Education and Science, the World-Class Research Centre for Personalized Medicine was established.
As a National Medical Research Centre of the Ministry of Health, Almazov Centre supervises other medical institutions in 40 regions of Russia in cardiology and cardiovascular surgery. Almazov Centre provides high-tech assistance to residents of 85 Russian regions in 17 medical fields.
Research is carried out under government contracts, grants, memoranda of understanding with Russian and international organizations and clinical testing protocols.
Key areas of research include cardiology, endocrinology, oncology, pediatrics, neonatology, reproduction, immunology and immunogenetics, neurobiology, surgery and neurosurgery, genetics, pharmacology, nanotechnology, cell and tissue engineering, artificial intelligence, etc.
Since 2018, Almazov Centre has been a WHO Collaborating Centre for CVDs, eHealth and value-based medicine in the following priority areas:
• expert activity in the development and implementation of measures for the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases with a special focus on epidemiology, emergency care, primary and secondary prevention and rehabilitation,
• promoting the understanding of value-based care and personalized medicine and their use,
• increasing awareness to assist WHO in the implementation of evidence-based approaches for NCDs,
• exploring the possibilities of using e-health and telemedicine technologies for NCD prevention and treatment.
In 2019, a major interdisciplinary project «Development of personalized therapy for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus to reduce cardiovascular risks» was successfully implemented as part of the Presidential Research Programme.
In 2020, the project «Development of new neuromodulation-based technologies for heart failure prevention and treatment» was launched under the grant of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science for implementation of large-scale projects in priority R&D areas.
The Preclinical Translational Research Centre has twice won the RSF infrastructure competition, with 16 projects completed.
Almazov Centre has a unique scientific infrastructure, equipment and critical technologies, such as all types of molecular diagnostic testing and sequencing, including single cell, genome editing, obtaining genetic models of diseases in all types of animals, modelling a complex of conditions, mathematical modelling of blood circulation and many others.
From 2019 to 2022, the following major results were achieved in priority areas of clinical medicine.
1. New neuromodulation-based technologies for heart failure prevention and treatment were developed.
2. New molecular genetic causes for the development of inherited myocardial disease were identified, which may be targets for the development of personalized therapies.
3. The epidemiology of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the population of 4 Russian regions was studied, the target organ damage was assessed and monitored over several years, the determinants of a poor prognosis were identified, and the congenital risks of polygenic diseases in Russian residents were assessed for their use in predictive risk models.
4. Approaches to the choice of surgical methods for the treatment of aortic aneurysms and dilatations, taking into account the etiopathogenesis of the disease, were developed, the molecular genetic basis of aortic valve calcification was identified, and a new non-invasive method for assessing the activity of aortic valve calcification using the 18F-NaF radiopharmaceutical was developed.
5. Heart failure survival prediction calculators for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction were developed and validated.
6. Approaches to the treatment of atrial fibrillation based on data from the Russian population of patients with atrial fibrillation were improved.
7. An approach was developed to control blood pressure and atrioventricular conduction in the heart by non-invasive (percutaneous) spinal cord stimulation.
8. Personalized approaches to identify and stratify cardiovascular risk in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia were developed using biomodels of atherosclerosis and genome editing technologies.
9. A model of a non-contact occlusion plethysmograph for the assessment of vasomotor reactivity was developed.
10. Personalized mathematical models were developed to predict functional geometry and reverse myocardial remodeling in interventional therapy for chronic heart failure using molecular and electrophysiological methods.
1. Mathematical models and automated decision support systems were developed to choose tactics for managing patients with cardiovascular disease and thyrotoxicosis of various origins.
2. The mechanisms of pubertal development disorders and male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were identified and new approaches to treatment and prevention were developed. A new drug based on new technologies for the treatment of male hypogonadism was proposed.
3. The molecular and genetic pathways for the development of obesity and the implementation of the response to its medical and surgical treatment were clarified.
4. New methods were developed to diagnose neuroendocrine tumors of the pituitary, pancreas, adrenal medulla and parathyroid glands.
5. Predictors of the development of gestational diabetes mellitus were identified and their effect on the fetus was assessed.
6. Personalized predictors of response to antidiabetic drug therapy for diabetes mellitus and to medical and surgical treatments for obesity were identified.
7. A new drug has been developed for the treatment and prevention of senile and postmenopausal osteoporosis.
8. Long-term effects of vitamin D deficiency were identified: a personalized approach to prevention and treatment.
9. The tactics of management and prevention of adverse outcomes in pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction was optimized.
1. A treatment method for clostridial colitis using enteral oxygen therapy was developed.
2. A test system was developed to detect methicillin resistance genes and assess their prevalence in different types of staphylococci that cause nosocomial infections.
3. A method for the diagnosis and treatment of a new nosocomial infection caused by Candida auris was developed.
4. A new approach was developed to bind and inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the body of a COVID-19 patient and in vitro using recombinant genetically engineered proteins.
5. Risk factors for severe course and poor prognosis of a new coronavirus infection were identified, an immunological panel was developed to assess the likelihood of developing a cytokine storm, and genetic factors for the development of deaths and complications in the post-COVID period were identified.
6. Inhalation therapy with a surfactant agent for severe pneumonia caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus was proposed and implemented.
7. The spectrum of microparticles in different biological fluids in normal health and various infectious and non-infectious conditions was determined as a potential biomarker and target for therapies.
1. Maternal and perinatal risk factors for neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis were identified. A personalized approach to the management of newborns with congenital heart disease was developed, taking into account the characteristics of the gut microbiome.
2. A neural network algorithm was developed for the early diagnosis of female genital tract tumors (cervical cancer) based on colposcopic screening.
3. A scheme for personalized treatment of cancer patients to preserve fertility was developed.
4. A rare disease register and algorithms for laboratory genetic diagnosis of the causes of rare congenital unknown diseases in children were developed.
5. Tactics for the management of pregnancy with or without a history of arterial hypertension in order to prevent the development of severe pre-eclampsia was developed. The use of soluble endoglin as a predictor of fetal dysfunction in severe pre-eclampsia was proposed.
1. A multimodal diagnostic technology was developed to detect disturbances in the structural and functional connections of the brain, markers of brain tissue damage and ischemia, and parameters of neuroplasticity in patients with cerebrovascular disease in order to identify new therapeutic and preventive strategies and to predict disease outcome.
2. A comprehensive approach was developed to selecting management tactics and assessing the risk of progression of functional deficits in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness.
3. New technologies for neurorehabilitation of patients after surgical treatment of central nervous system tumors were developed.
4. A personalized approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy was developed, based on the detection of new pathomorphological and immunohistochemical structural changes.
1. A new radiopharmaceutical for the diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer [68Ga]BQ7812 was developed.
2. RAS70 peptide drug against membrane-bound Hsp70 on cancer cells for targeted intraoperative diagnosis of malignancies was developed
3. Novel mutations associated with CNS tumors in children were identified.
4. A screening panel for the analysis of plasma extracellular vesicles in patients with leukemia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was developed and optimized.
5. A risk scale for failure to achieve a complete cytogenetic response to third-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was created. A registry of CML patients in blast crisis was established.
6. A personalized approach to the choice of management tactics for patients with acute myeloid leukemia based on the assessment of minimal detectable disease was developed.
In the period 2019—2022, the following main results were achieved in the priority areas of basic medicine:
1. The basic mechanisms of controlled changes in the gut microbiota composition in relation to myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion were identified.
2. Pathophysiological mechanisms of adipokine effect on the severity of ischemia-reperfusion damage, changes in mechanical and electrical activity of the myocardium in myocardial infarction were discovered.
3. An approach to the modification of myocardial electrophysiological parameters by the introduction of specifically synthesized liposomes encapsulating the neuromodulators 6-hydroxydophamine and aziridine-ethylcholine was developed. A methodology for the synthesis of encapsulating liposomes was developed as part of the study.
4. Modelling of pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension was carried out and a personalized approach to treatment and prediction of outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension was developed.
5. A technique for targeted denervation of the pulmonary artery based on electrophysiological (stimulation) mapping of perivascular nerves was developed.
6. An experimental model of unilateral parasympathetic denervation in rats was developed and validated. The technique of complete cardiac denervation by heterotopic transplantation was developed.
7. A novel approach was developed to bind and inactivate SARS-CoV-2 virus in COVID-19 patients and in vitro using recombinant engineered proteins.
8. New ways of differentiating embryonic stem populations in genetically modified experimental animal models of Danio rerio using the genetic tracing method were revealed, and models of neurodegeneration and neurogenesis were developed.
9. A platform was developed for the development of gene therapy drugs for congenital genetic diseases of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems.
10. Approaches to personalized cancer therapy using effector cells (cell-based drugs) were developed. A platform for the generation of effector cells for cancer therapy was developed, enabling the rapid generation of cell products against various hematological malignancies and solid tumors.